Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress.

During exercise in the heat, sweat output often exceeds water intake, resulting in a body water deficit (hypohydration) and electrolyte losses. Because daily water losses can be substantial, persons need to emphasize drinking during exercise as well as at meals.


Protein Added to a Sports Drink Improves Fluid Retention

The purpose of this study was to compare fluid retention of carbohydrate plus protein, a carbohydrate-only, and water following 2.5% body weight (BW) loss.


Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Supplement on Endurance Performance During Exercise of Varying Intensity.

Increasing the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during prolonged variable intensity exercise by supplementing with carbohydrate has been found to spare muscle glycogen and increase aerobic endurance.


Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage on Cycling Endurance and Muscle Damage.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether endurance cycling performance and postexercise muscle damage were altered when consuming a carbohydrate and protein beverage (CHO+P; 7.3% and 1.8% concentrations) versus a carbohydrate-only (CHO; 7.3%) beverage.


Muscle Damage, Fluid Ingestion, and Energy Supplementation During Recreational Alpine Skiing

This study examined energy and fluid supplementation of indices of muscle damage during alpine skiing. Skiers were assigned to a carbohydrate-protein (CP), placebo (PL), or no fluid (NF) group.



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Dehydration means your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe. When it is severe, dehydration is a life-threatening emergency.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors: